Methods (San Diego, Calif.) 2017 07 12() pii 10.1016/j.ymeth.2017.07.009
Nowadays several new imaging modalities are available for investigating prostate cancer (PCa) such as magnet resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of whole body MRI and pelvic multiparametric MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) using choline as radiotracers. Nevertheless, these modalities proved sub-optimal accuracy for detecting PCa metastases, particularly in the recurrence setting. A new molecular probe targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been recently developed for PET imaging. PSMA, the glutamate carboxypeptidase II, is a membrane bound metallo-peptidase over-expressed in PCa cells. It has been shown that PSMA based imaging offers higher tumor detection rate compared to choline PET/CT and radiological conventional imaging, especially at very low PSA levels during biochemical recurrence. In addition PSMA, as theranostics agent, allows both radiolabeling with diagnostic (e.g. 68Ga, 18F) or therapeutic nuclides (e.g. 177Lu, 225Ac). Initial results show that PSMA-targeted radioligand therapy can potentially delay disease progression in metastatic castrate-resistant PCa. Despite still investigational, the bombesin-based radiotracers and antagonist of gastrin releasing-peptide receptor (GRP) (RM2) and anti1-amino-3-18Ffluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-FACBC) are emerging as possible alternatives for investigating PCa. Considering the wide diffusion of PCa in the Europe and the United States, the presence of these new diagnostic techniques able to detect the disease with high sensitivity and specificity might have a clinical impact on the management of patients. PET/CT imaging with new radiopharmaceuticals can implement the patient management identifying lesion(s) not detectable with conventional imaging procedures. In this review article will be discussed the most promising new PET radiopharmaceuticals (68Ga-PSMA-11, 18F-FACBC, 68Ga-RM2) available at the moment, focusing the attention on their accuracy and their impact on treatment strategy.