Immunotherapy, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines, and dendritic cell therapy, has been incorporated as a fifth modality of modern cancer care, along with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and target therapy. Among them, CAR T-cell therapy emerges as one of the most promising treatments. In 2017, the first two CAR T-cell drugs, tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), respectively, were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition to the successful applications to hematological malignancies, CAR T-cell therapy has been investigated to potentially treat solid tumors, including pediatric brain tumor, which serves as the leading cause of cancer-associated death for children and adolescents. However, the employment of CAR T-cell therapy in pediatric brain tumors still faces multiple challenges, such as CAR T-cell transportation and expansion through the blood-brain barrier, and identification of the specific target antigen on the tumor surface and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Nevertheless, encouraging outcomes in both clinical and preclinical trials are coming to light. In this article, we outline the current propitious progress and discuss the obstacles needed to be overcome in order to unveil a new era of treatment in pediatric brain tumors.
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