The estimated annual incidence of HIV climbed from 20,000 infections in 1981 to a peak of 130,400 infections in 1984-1985, but more recently, the annual incidence has been on the decline, reaching 34,800 infections in 2019, according to a study published in the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Investi- gators estimated the annual number of new HIV infections among people aged 13 and older in the US during 1981-2019 using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System. The study team found that male-to-male sexual contact accounted for most infections (63% and 66% in 1981 and 2019, respectively). From 1981 to 2019, the proportion of HIV infections in- creased among Black/African-American persons and among Hispanic/Latino persons (from 29% to 41%, and from 16% to 29%, respectively). HIV prevention tools, including testing, prompt and sustained treatment, preexposure prophylax- is, and comprehensive syringe service programs provide an opportunity to reduce new infections. “Equitable implementation of prevention tools to diagnose HIV infection early, treat persons with HIV to rapidly achieve viral suppression, and link persons to preventive services to reduce new transmissions will hasten the decrease in HIV incidence,” the authors wrote.