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New Insights Contributing to the Development of Effective Vaccines and Therapies to Reduce the Pathology Caused by hRSV.

New Insights Contributing to the Development of Effective Vaccines and Therapies to Reduce the Pathology Caused by hRSV.
Author Information (click to view)

Gálvez NMS, Soto JA, Kalergis AM,


Gálvez NMS, Soto JA, Kalergis AM, (click to view)

Gálvez NMS, Soto JA, Kalergis AM,

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International journal of molecular sciences 2017 08 1118(8) pii E1753
Abstract

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. Its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. It is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hRSV is due in part to the activity of several viral proteins that modulate the host immune response, enhancing a Th2-like pro-inflammatory state, with the secretion of cytokines that promote the infiltration of immune cells to the lungs, with consequent damage. Furthermore, the adaptive immunity triggered by hRSV infection is characterized by weak cytotoxic T cell responses and secretion of low affinity antibodies by B cells. These features of hRSV infection have meant that, to date, no effective and safe vaccines have been licensed. In this article, we will review in detail the information regarding hRSV characteristics, pathology, and host immune response, along with several prophylactic treatments and vaccine prototypes. We will also expose significant data regarding the newly developed BCG-based vaccine that promotes protective cellular and humoral response against hRSV infection, which is currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

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