Exposure to UV radiation is a well-known cause of skin cancer. But other risks differ by skin cancer type. Even personal, behavioral, and environmental factors cannot get ruled out. The common types are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), basal, and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC). This study explores the biological, social, and psychological risk factors of these diseases.

The study aims to identify new skin cancer risks and their magnitude. Patients from different hospitals from 8 countries were the sample. Researchers conducted a multi-center, case-control study by the EPIDERM consortium. Participants were from Scotland, Greece, Germany, Finland, Poland, Malta, Scotland, and Spain. The SCC, BCC, CMM, and control-case persons were 409, 602, 360, and 1550. Data collection took place from dermatologists and patients using questionnaires. Data analysis tools used were unconditional logistical regression models with odds ratios, 95% confidence interval, and P-values.

The results correlated sun exposure, skin pigment, food, medicines, and stress with cancer risk. Chronic sun exposure increased SCC risk, while naevi and atypical naevi impacted CMM risk. BCC risk lowered due to ciprofloxacin usage, while thiazide diuretics increased SCC risk. The reverse association of these drugs with SCC and BCC became insignificant due to multiple testing corrections. CMM chances grew due to stress, while pomegranate (antioxidant fruits) lowered SCC and BCC incidences. 

The large-scale study confirmed the well-known risks like sun exposure. They also revealed potential risks such as medicinal use, stress, and food consumption. Further studies are essential to assess the protective, preventive factors

Ref: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.11081.x