Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affect approximately half of people living with HIV despite viral suppression with antiretroviral therapies and represent a major cause of morbidity. HAND affects activities of daily living including driving, using the Internet and, importantly, maintaining drug adherence. Whilst viral suppression with antiretroviral therapies (ART) has reduced the incidence of severe dementia, mild neurocognitive impairments continue to remain prevalent. The neuropathogenesis of HAND in the context of viral suppression remains ill-defined, but underlying neuroinflammation is likely central and driven by a combination of chronic intermittent low-level replication of whole virus or viral components, latent HIV infection, peripheral inflammation possibly from a disturbed gut microbiome or chronic cellular dysfunction in the central nervous system. HAND is optimally diagnosed by clinical assessment with imaging and neuropsychological testing, which can be difficult to perform in resource-limited settings. Thus, the identification of biomarkers of disease is a key focus of the field. In this chapter, recent advances in the pathogenesis of HAND and biomarkers that may aid its diagnosis and treatment will be discussed.
Marek’s disease virus oncogene Meq expression in infected cells in vaccinated and unvaccinated hosts.
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- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- CROI 2020Every year, CROI hosts some of the world's leading experts in HIV research, who come to present exciting new data and drive forward the field of HIV/AIDS research. This year, due to COVID-19, CROI held their meeting virtually.