Nitric oxide (NO) is acknowledged as a vital intercellular messenger in multiple systems in the body. Medicine has focused on its functions and therapeutic applications for decades, especially in cardiovascular and nervous systems, and its role in immunological responses. This review was composed to demonstrate the prevalence of NO in components of the ocular system, including corneal cells and multiple cells in the retina. It discussed NO’s assistance during the immune, inflammation and wound-healing processes. NO is identified as a vascular endothelial relaxant that can alter the choroidal blood flow and prompt or suppress vascular changes in age-related macular degeneration and diabetes, as well as the blood supply to the optic nerve, possibly influencing the progression of glaucoma. It will provide a deeper understanding of the role of NO in ocular homeostasis, the delicate balance between overproduction or underproduction and the effect on the processes from aqueous outflow and subsequent intraocular pressure to axial elongation and the development of myopia. This review also recognized the research and investigation of therapies being developed to target the NO complex and treat various ocular diseases.
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