NLRC4 inflammasomopathies.

NLRC4 inflammasomopathies.
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Romberg N, Vogel TP, Canna SW,

Romberg N, Vogel TP, Canna SW, (click to view)

Romberg N, Vogel TP, Canna SW,


Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology 2017 09 27() doi 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000396
The purpose of the review is to highlight developments in autoinflammatory diseases associated with gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding NLR-family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4), the NLRC4-inflammasomopathies.

Three years since the identification of the first autoinflammation with infantile enterocolitis (AIFEC) patients, there is an improved understanding of how the NLRC4 inflammasome and interleukin 18 (IL-18) contribute to gut inflammation in myeloid and also intestinal epithelial cells. This information has opened new therapeutic avenues to treat AIFEC patients with targeted agents like recombinant IL-18 binding protein and antiinterferon-γ antibodies. Additional phenotypes traditionally associated with NLRP3 mutations like familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome and neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), have now also been associated with gain-of-function NLRC4 mutations. Finally, NLRC4 somatic mosaicism has now been identified in a NOMID and an AIFEC patient, a finding emphasizing nontraditional modes of inheritance in autoinflammatory diseases.

The NLRC4 inflammasomopathies constitute a growing autoinflammatory disease category that spans a broad clinical spectrum from cold urticaria to NOMID and the often fatal disease AIFEC. Rapid case identification with biomarkers like elevated serum IL-18 concentrations and early intervention with targeted immunomodulatory therapies are key strategies to improving outcomes for AIFEC patients.

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