Archives of gynecology and obstetrics 2017 10 11() doi 10.1007/s00404-017-4556-9
This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants.
This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were then applied: diabetes mellitus, genitourinary tract infections, or HIV infection; previous multiple gestations; previous preterm birth/low birth weight infants; in vitro fertilization procedures; placental, cervical/uterine abnormalities; history of infertility; history of drug abuse; and any medical conditions that required antibiotics prophylaxis. Patients’ anthropometric, demographic, and behavioral characteristics were collected. The periodontal clinical parameters were obtained from six sites per tooth: clinical attachment level, probing pocket depth, dental plaque index, and gingival bleeding index. Women were then allocated into two groups: mothers of preterm and/or low birth weight newborns (cases) and mothers of full-term and normal birth weight newborns (controls).
Periodontal clinical parameters were analyzed and reported separately for each group, and no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that periodontal clinical parameters were not associated with the adverse pregnancy outcomes.
After controlling for confounding factors, our results suggest that maternal periodontal disease is not a risk factor associated with preterm low birth weight infants.