Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children are major health concerns worldwide with increasing incidence and prevalence. Renal replacement therapies and kidney transplants have remarkably improved the management of patients with ESRD in both adult and pediatric populations. Kidney transplant has the best patient outcomes, but many a time it has a considerable waiting period. In the meantime, the majority of patients with pediatric ESRD are dependent on dialysis. The conventionally utilized hemodialysis regimen is the three times weekly, in-center hemodialysis. Many studies have demonstrated the unfavorable long-term morbidity associated with the conventional regimen. Intensified dialysis programs, which include extended nocturnal hemodialysis or short daily hemodialysis, are being increasingly advocated over the past two decades. In addition to having much better clinical outcomes as compared with the conventional regimen, the flexibility to provide dialysis at home serves as a great incentive. PubMed/Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases for literature on nocturnal home hemodialysis in children with ESRD were extensively searched. Contrary to the noticeable literature available on adult home hemodialysis, a small number of studies exist in the pediatric population. In this review, the benefits, implementation and associated barriers of nocturnal home hemodialysis in children were addressed.
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