BCG is the gold standard treatment for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) that may be managed without removing the bladder. Recent BCG shortages, on the other hand, appear to represent a long-term issue. In the absence of BCG or in individuals who do not respond to BCG, there are few viable intravenous choices. For a review, researchers focused on new bladder sparing treatments and clinical studies for NMIBC.

Patients with high-risk NMIBC who do not react to BCG have a higher risk of bladder cancer development and mortality. Checkpoint inhibition, new chemotherapy and drug delivery, viral and gene therapy, vaccinations, and targeted treatment are among the therapeutic techniques being investigated in clinical trials.

In an era when BCG is in short supply, effective first-line alternatives, as well as choices for individuals who do not react to BCG, are needed. Fortunately, there are a number of ongoing studies and processes that are intensively pursuing these topics.