BMJ open 2017 08 117(8) e016670 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016670
To assess the effect of non-pharmacological self-management interventions against usual care, and to explore diﬀerent components and delivery methods within those interventions PARTICIPANTS: People living with migraine and/or tension-type headache INTERVENTIONS: Non-pharmacological educational or psychological self-management interventions; excluding biofeedback and physical therapy.We assessed the overall effectiveness against usual care on headache frequency, pain intensity, mood, headache-related disability, quality of life and medication consumption in meta-analysis.We also provide preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of intervention components and delivery methods.
We found a small overall effect for the superiority of self-management interventions over usual care, with a standardised mean diﬀerence (SMD) of -0.36 (-0.45 to -0.26) for pain intensity; -0.32 (-0.42 to -0.22) for headache-related disability, 0.32 (0.20 to 0.45) for quality of life and a moderate effect on mood (SMD=0.53 (-0.66 to -0.40)). We did not find an effect on headache frequency (SMD=-0.07 (-0.22 to 0.08)).Assessment of components and characteristics suggests a larger effect on pain intensity in interventions that included explicit educational components (-0.51 (-0.68 to -0.34) vs -0.28 (-0.40 to -0.16)); mindfulness components (-0.50 (-0.82 to -0.18) vs 0.34 (-0.44 to -0.24)) and in interventions delivered in groups vs one-to-one delivery (0.56 (-0.72 to -0.40) vs -0.39 (-0.52 to -0.27)) and larger effects on mood in interventions including a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) component with an SMD of -0.72 (-0.93 to -0.51) compared with those without CBT -0.41 (-0.58 to -0.24).
Overall we found that self-management interventions for migraine and tension-type headache are more effective than usual care in reducing pain intensity, mood and headache-related disability, but have no effect on headache frequency. Preliminary findings also suggest that including CBT, mindfulness and educational components in interventions, and delivery in groups may increase effectiveness.
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