Objectives To review non-surgical prevention strategies in women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndromes. Content Women with a gBRCA1 or 2 mutations face a high cumulative breast and ovarian cancer risk. While bilateral mastectomy (PBM) and bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy (PBSO) profoundly reduce the respective cancer risks, they are also associated with considerable side effects. There is therefore an urgent need for alternative and non-surgical risk reduction options. Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors have both been evaluated in secondary prevention, but their benefit in primary prevention is currently unknown in BRCA mutation carriers. In addition, their use is compromised by their side effect profile which makes them less appealing for a use in chemoprevention. Summary and outlook Denosumab is a well-tolerated osteoprotective drug, which has been demonstrated to have a potential preventive effect particularly in BRCA1-deficient models in vitro. The prospectively randomized double-blind BRCA-P trial is currently investigating the preventative effect of denosumab in healthy BRCA1 germ line mutation carriers.