This study evaluated detectable nontarget embolization (NTE) during prostatic artery embolization (PAE) and the safety and efficacy of using radiopaque particles in PAE. Ten patients aged >40 years with prostate glands of >50 mL and refractory lower urinary tract symptoms were analyzed. Unenhanced computed tomography scans at baseline and at 3 months after PAE, using 40-90-μm radiopaque spherical embolic beads, were compared to assess the NTE. Growth models evaluated changes from baseline to 3, 6, and 12 months in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak urine flow rate (Qmax), quality of life (QoL), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and postvoid residual (PVR). The IPSS, QoL, and Qmax improved at all time points (P < .05), with no trend in PVR or IIEF. Adverse events that occurred were minor. Radiographic NTE was seen in all patients, correlating at times with postprocedural symptoms (eg, rectal pain). Symptoms were not correlated with the NTE in some patients, whereas other patients remained asymptomatic despite NTE.
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