The topic of fertility preservation in patients with a lymphoproliferative disease offers new aspects of debate, due to the introduction of novel chemotherapeutic regimens and small molecules in the clinical landscape. Cancer related infertility is mostly dependent on gonadotoxic treatments and fertile female patients are today addressed to the oocyte cryopreservation or to ovarian cortex fragment cryopreservation. These methods present advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed in the present review, together with the options for male patients. The recent discovery of functional ovarian stem cells (OCSs) in woman ovarian cortex, opens new avenues offering a innovative procedure for fertility preservation through as model of regenerative medicine. Here, we review the gonadotoxic potential of “classical” chemotherapeutic treatments as well as of “novel” targeted therapies actually employed for lymphoproliferative neoplasms in young patients and revisit both the today available and future chances to preserve and restore fertility after the cancer healing.
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