Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for November 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Case Description Can Reliably Define Acute Flaccid Myelitis

FRIDAY, Nov. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A case description can reliably define patients with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), according to a study published online Nov. 30 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Results of Pediatric Genomic Epilepsy Tests Often Reclassified

FRIDAY, Nov. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The interpretation of genomic epilepsy tests has evolved rapidly in the last five years, and genetic variants identified in pediatric patients are often reclassified, according to research published online Nov. 5 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Burnout, Satisfaction Vary With Age, Sex Among Neurologists

FRIDAY, Nov. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being vary by age and sex among neurologists, according to a study published online Nov. 15 in Neurology.

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FDA Approves Firdapse for Rare Autoimmune Disorder

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Firdapse (amifampridine) tablets have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for adults with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS).

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Dementia Often Misclassified With Brief Cognitive Assessments

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — When using brief cognitive assessments, dementia is often misclassified, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in Neurology Clinical Practice.

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Monitoring Movement Reflects Efficacy of Mandibular Splint

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with an optimally titrated mandibular advancement splint, normalization of the respiratory effort index derived from vertical mandibular movements (MM-REI) reflects the efficacy of the appliance, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in CHEST.

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Liquid Biopsy Can Assess Tx Response of Peds Brain Tumors

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A liquid biopsy using blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can effectively quantify changes in mutation levels among pediatric patients being treated for diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs), according to a study recently published in Clinical Cancer Research.

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ADHD Diagnosis, Treatment Up for August-Born Children

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In states with a Sept. 1 cutoff for kindergarten entry, the rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and treatment are higher for children born in August than those born in September, according to a study published in the Nov. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Gene Therapy Forms New Polysynaptic Pathways in Parkinson’s

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) undergoing gene therapy, new polysynaptic functional pathways develop in the brain, according to a study published in the Nov. 28 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Feature Tagging of Home Videos Promising in Autism Diagnosis

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Feature tagging of home videos for machine learning classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with the use of a mobile device produces accurate results in short time frames, according to a study published online Nov. 27 in PLOS Medicine.

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Fruits, Veggies, Orange Juice May Protect Men’s Memory

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Higher consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with lower odds of future memory loss in men, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in Neurology.

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FDA to Update Medical Device Approvals Process

TUESDAY, Nov. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A major update of the United States’ system for approving medical devices was announced yesterday by the Food and Drug Administration.

CBS/AP News Article
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Four Principles Underlie Patient and Family Partnership in Care

TUESDAY, Nov. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Patient and family partnership in care should include treatment of patients and families with dignity and respect, their active engagement in all aspects of care, and their contribution to the improvement of health care systems and education of health care professionals, according to a position paper published online Nov. 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Position Paper
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Risks of Trazodone Similar to Those of Atypical Antipsychotics

TUESDAY, Nov. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For older adults with dementia, trazodone is associated with a comparable risk for falls and fractures as that of atypical antipsychotics, according to a study published online Nov. 26 in CMAJ, the Journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Estimated 2.5 Percent of U.S. Children Diagnosed With Autism

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is estimated at 2.5 percent among U.S. children aged 3 to 17 years, according to a study published online Nov. 26 in Pediatrics.

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ACA Coverage Substantial, but Did Not Impact Labor Markets

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Millions of workers gained insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) without adverse effects on labor markets, according to a report published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Urban Institute.

Report: How Have Workers Fared Under the ACA?

Ocrelizumab May Help Preserve Hand, Arm Function in PPMS

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), ocrelizumab reduces progression of upper-extremity (UE) impairment, according to an exploratory analysis published online Nov. 12 in the Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

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CDC: U.S. Prevalence of ALS Was 5.2 Per 100,000 in 2015

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In 2015, the prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the United States was 5.2 per 100,000 population, with 16,583 cases identified, according to research published in the Nov. 23 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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FDA Approves Drug to Treat Rare Immune Disease

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Monday approved Gamifant (emapalumab-lzsg) for the treatment of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in pediatric (as young as newborn) and adult patients who have refractory, recurrent, or progressive disease or intolerance with conventional HLH treatment.

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ED Utilization Up for Pediatric mTBI After TBI Legislation

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Implementation of state youth traumatic brain injury (TBI) legislation correlated with an increase in pediatric emergency department utilization for youth sports- and recreation-related mild TBI (mTBI) evaluation, according to a study published in the November/December issue of the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation.

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Arterial Stiffness May Predict Dementia Risk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Arterial stiffness may predict dementia risk, independent of subclinical brain damage, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

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CDC Announces Acute Flaccid Myelitis Task Force

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A task force to investigate a rising number of cases of a rare polio-like disease among children in the United States has been created by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Dementia Tied to Mortality in Older Adults With Down Syndrome

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Dementia is associated with mortality in most older adults with Down syndrome, according to a study published online Nov. 19 in JAMA Neurology.

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Prenatal Nitric Oxide Exposure Linked to Higher Risk for Autism

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Prenatal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) is associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published online Nov. 19 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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MS Relapse Drops During Pregnancy but Rises After

MONDAY, Nov. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse decrease during pregnancy but increase postpartum, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Neurology.

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AAP Updates Management of Sport-Related Concussion

FRIDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Recommendations have been developed for the diagnosis and management of pediatric sport-related concussion (SRC), according to a clinical report published online Nov. 12 in Pediatrics.

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CDC: 8.8 Percent Uninsured in U.S. in First Half of 2018

FRIDAY, Nov. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In the first six months of 2018, 8.8 percent of U.S. individuals of all ages were uninsured, which was not significantly different from 2017, according to a report published Nov. 15 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.

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Name-Brand Medications Driving Spike in U.S. Drug Spending

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Rising drug spending in the United States is being fueled by expensive name-brand prescription medicines, a new study shows.

NBC News Article
Blue Cross Blue Shield Report

Many Patients Do Not Engage Health Care Provider During MS Relapse

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The rate and frequency of relapse vary for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and many report not visiting a health care provider during relapse, according to a study published in the November issue of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.

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Patient Experiences Shed Light on Diagnostic Errors

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Data from patient- and family-reported error narratives indicate that problems related to patient-physician interactions are major contributors to diagnostic errors, according to a study published in the November issue of Health Affairs.

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AMA to Collect Data on Suicide Among Doctors-in-Training

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — By collecting data on suicides by medical students, residents, and fellows, the American Medical Association hopes to identify ways to reduce suicides among doctors-in-training. The data collection policy was approved at a meeting yesterday.

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CDC Probe Continues as Cases of Acute Flaccid Myelitis Rise

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Cases of a mysterious polio-like illness continue to mount in the United States, and health officials are scrambling to figure out the cause.

HealthDay Article
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No Efficacy Signal for Fluoxetine in EV-D68 Acute Flaccid Myelitis

TUESDAY, Nov. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The antiviral agent fluoxetine is well tolerated but is not effective for patients with proven or presumptive enterovirus D68-associated acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), according to a study published online Nov. 9 in Neurology.

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Repetitive Hits May Predispose Athletes to Concussion

TUESDAY, Nov. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Repetitive head impact exposure appears to be a predisposing factor for the onset of concussion, according to a study published online Oct. 22 in the Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

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18F-FDG PET Algorithm Allows Early Prediction of Alzheimer’s

TUESDAY, Nov. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain can be used to develop a deep learning algorithm for early prediction of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that has high specificity and sensitivity, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in Radiology.

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In-Hospital Infection May Up Readmission After Stroke

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with ischemic stroke, infection during stroke hospitalization is associated with increased odds of 30-day readmission, according to a study published online Nov. 1 in Stroke.

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Quitting Cannabis Tied to Improved Memory

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Abstaining from cannabis is associated with improvements in memory and verbal learning in adolescents and young adults, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

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Use of Polyetheretherketone Devices May Up Pseudarthrosis

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For one-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) devices is associated with significantly higher rates of radiographically demonstrated pseudarthrosis and need for revision surgery compared with allografts, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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Concussion-Related Biomarkers Vary Based on Sex, Race

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Concussion-related serum biomarkers vary by sex and race, which may complicate their interpretation, according to three studies published online Nov. 7 in Neurology.

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Medicaid Expansion Approved in Three Republican-Leaning States

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Hundreds of thousands more low-income Americans could get health insurance after voters in three Republican-leaning states approved Medicaid expansion in the midterm elections.

CNBC Article

Short Questionnaire IDs GI Disorders in Children With Autism

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A short parent questionnaire may be able to identify gastrointestinal disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published online Oct. 22 in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

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CDC: Cases of Polio-Like Illness Still Increasing in the U.S.

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Cases of a polio-like condition that mainly affects children continue to rise this year in the United States, health officials say.

More Information: CDC

Reduced Survival for Patients With Idiopathic Parkinsonism

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Patients with idiopathic parkinsonism have reduced survival, although survival is dependent on the type and characteristics of the parkinsonian disorder, according to a study published online Oct. 31 in Neurology.

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Surgery Restores Boy’s Ability to Walk Post-Acute Flaccid Myelitis

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A first-of-its-kind surgery has restored the ability to walk in a boy paralyzed by acute flaccid myelitis (AFM).

CBS News Article
More Information: CDC

Most Meds Affecting Neurotransmitters Not Linked to Autism Risk

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Prenatal exposure to most medications affecting neurotransmitter systems is not associated with estimates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk, according to a study published online Oct. 31 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Older Paternal Age Linked to Adverse Perinatal Outcomes

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Advanced paternal age is associated with adverse infant and maternal outcomes, according to a study published online Oct. 31 in The BMJ.

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Removing Appendix May Lower Risk for Parkinson’s Disease

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The normal human appendix seems to contain pathogenic forms of α-synuclein, which may impact the risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD), according to a study published online Oct. 31 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Abnormalities in Genes Linked to IRSP in Alzheimer’s Disease

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have abnormalities and reductions in gene expression in the parahippocampal gyri that map to genes associated with the insulin receptor signaling pathway (IRSP), according to a study published online Nov. 1 in PLOS ONE.

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Sign-Up Season Begins on HealthCare.gov

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The federal government website where Americans can sign up for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act is up and running, officials said yesterday.

AP News Article
HealthCare.gov

Higher Serum Cortisol Level Linked to Lower Brain Volumes

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Higher serum cortisol level is associated with lower brain volumes and impaired memory in asymptomatic younger to middle-aged adults, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in Neurology.

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Social Stigma Worsens Mental Health With Autism

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Stress related to social stigma may contribute to why people with autism experience more mental health problems than the general population, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in Society and Mental Health.

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First FDA-Approved Cannabis Drug Now Available in U.S.

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The first cannabis-based medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is now available by prescription nationwide.

CNN Article
HealthDay Article
FDA June Approval

Financial Conflicts of Interest Prevalent Among CPG Authors

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is a high prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among authors of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) related to high-revenue medications and in gastroenterology, according to two research letters published online Oct. 29 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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