The accumulation of plaque in the coronary artery of the human heart restricts the path of blood flow in that region and leads to Coronary Artery Disease. This study’s goal is to present the pulsatile blood flow conduct through four different levels of constrictions, i.e., healthy, 25%, 50%, and 75% in human left coronary arteries.
Using CT scan data of a healthy person, the two-dimensional coronary model is constructed. A non-Newtonian Carreau model is used to study the maximum flow velocity, streamline effect, and maximum Wall Shear Stress at the respective constricted areas over the entire cardiac cycle. Finite Volume Method is executed for solving the governing equations. The fluctuating Wall Shear Stress (WSS) at different levels was assessed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
The comparative study of the diseased arteries showcases that at the systolic phase, the 75% blocked artery attains the maximum velocity of 0.14 m/s and 0.53 m/s at t=0.005 s and t=0.115 s, respectively. While the maximum velocity takes a significant drop at t=0.23 s and t=0.345 s, this marks the diastolic phase. The streamline contour showcased the blood flow conduct at different phases of the cardiac cycle. At the peak systolic phase, a dense flow separation was observed near the blocked regions. It highlights the disturbed flow in that particular region. The most severely diseased artery acquires the maximum WSS of 18.81 Pa at the peak systolic phase, i.e., at t=0.115 s.
The computational study of the hemodynamic parameters can aid in the early anticipation of the degree of the severity of the diseased arteries. This study, in a way, could benefit doctors/surgeons to plan an early treatment/surgery on the grounds of the severity of the disease. Thus, a before time prognosis could restrain the number of deaths caused due to Coronary Artery Disease.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.

References

PubMed