PloS one 2017 09 0812(9) e0183963 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0183963
Secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) could reduce morbidity and mortality, but guideline targets are seldom reached. We hypothesized that nurse-led telephone-based intervention would increase adherence.
The NAILED ACS trial is a prospective, controlled, randomized trial. Patients admitted for ACS at Östersund hospital, Sweden, were randomized to usual follow-up by a general practitioner or a nurse-led intervention. The intervention comprised telephone follow-up after 1 month and then yearly with lifestyle counselling and titration of medications until reaching target values for LDL-C (<2.5 mmol/L) and blood pressure (BP; <140/90 mmHg) or set targets were deemed unachievable. This is a 12-month exploratory analysis of the intervention. RESULTS
A total of 768 patients (396 intervention, 372 control) completed the 12-month follow-up. After titration at the 1-month follow-up, mean LDL-C was 0.38 mmol/L (95% CI 0.28 to 0.48, p<0.05), mean systolic BP 7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 to 9.2, p<0.05), and mean diastolic BP 4 mmHg (95% CI 2.4 to 4.1, p<0.05) lower in the intervention group. Target values for LDL-C and systolic BP were met by 94.1% and 91.9% of intervention patients and 68.4% and 65.6% of controls (p<0.05). At 12 months, mean LDL was 0.3 mmol/L (95% CI 0.1 to 0.4, p <0.05), systolic BP 1.5 mmHg (95% CI -1.0 to 4.1, p = 0.24), and mean diastolic BP 2.1 mmHg (95% CI 0.6 to 3.6, p <0.05) lower in the intervention group. Target values for LDL-C and systolic BP were met in 77.7% and 68.9% of intervention patients and 63.2% and 63.7% of controls (p<0.05 and p = 0.125). CONCLUSION
Nurse-led telephone-based secondary prevention was significantly more efficient at improving LDL-C and diastolic BP levels than usual care. The effect of the intervention declined between 1 and 12 months. Further evaluation of the persistence to the intervention is needed.