Children with neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) may experience a spectrum of nutritional issues with adverse health consequences. This review summarizes the current understanding of nutritional care in pediatric NMDs, recognizing disease-specific aspects of nutrition alongside the challenges and needs in dietetic care. General or disease-related nutritional issues for children with NMDs include being underweight, overweight, or obese and having swallowing difficulty, gastroesophageal reflux, diarrhea, and/or constipation. Specific challenges in NMD nutritional assessment include alterations in body composition and energy requirements and difficulties in measuring anthropometry. Multidisciplinary dietetic intervention focuses on optimizing nutrient intakes to avert growth failure or obesity and managing feeding difficulties and gastrointestinal problems. Care guidelines are disease specific and vary in approach and detail. To promote best clinical practice across diverse settings, a standardized approach to assessing growth and nutrition across all pediatric NMDs is needed to direct optimal care centered on individual requirements. Future studies should focus on determining the prevalence of specific nutritional issues and the effectiveness of specific interventions among various pediatric NMD populations.
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