Infantile nystagmus is an infrequent condition that represents a diagnostic challenge for the pediatri cian. Albinism is one of its main causes, being difficult to suspect in the absence of evident cutaneous involvement, especially in female patients, due to the inheritance type of ocular albinism. Objec tive: To describe a case of nystagmus secondary to albinism with isolated ocular involvement in a female patient, in order to provide tools for pediatric approach and diagnosis.
Three- weeks-old female patient, without morbid history, referred to a pediatric neurosurgeon and ophthal mologist due to paroxysmal eye movements since 2 weeks of age. The electroencephalogram and brain images were normal. In follow-up monitoring at 3 months, iris translucency, nystagmus, and hypermetropic astigmatism were confirmed. Dermatologic evaluation ruled out cutaneous invol vement. The patient developed cephalic downward inclination and coordination development de lay was confirmed, the patient was handled with corrective lenses and kinesiotherapy. In follow-up monitoring at 3 years, there was an improvement in visual acuity, decreased nystagmus and normal neurodevelopment. The ophthalmological evaluation of both parents was normal and there was no history of nystagmus or albinism in the family. Upon her parents’ decision, no genetic study was ca rried out.
The diagnosis of nystagmus secondary to ocular albinism, even in the absence of cutaneous involvement, is clinical. The genetic study allows confirming the etiology, without being an essential examination, unless family planning is considered. Timely research and multidisciplinary intervention determine a better prognosis.