Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for October 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Link Between Statins, Non-CVD Outcomes Lacks Evidence

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is a lack of convincing evidence for an association between statin use and non-cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, according to a review published in the Oct. 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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AMA Announces Initiative to Reinvent Physician Training

TUESDAY, Oct. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The American Medical Association (AMA) today announced a new $15 million competitive grant initiative, the “Reimagining Residency” initiative, aimed at improving residency training.

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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors May Up Lung CA Risk

TUESDAY, Oct. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer compared with angiotensin receptor blockers, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in the BMJ.

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Community Health Worker Intervention Beneficial

TUESDAY, Oct. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A standardized community health worker (CHW)-delivered intervention, Individual Management for Patient-Centered Targets, improves patient-perceived quality of care and reduces hospitalizations for low-income patients with chronic diseases, according to a study published online Oct. 22 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Many Hospitals Noncompliant With Record Request Regulations

MONDAY, Oct. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Among top-ranked U.S. hospitals, data reveal discrepancies in information provided to patients regarding medical records release processes as well as noncompliance with state and federal regulations, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in JAMA Network Open.

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Durvalumab Extends Survival in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung CA

MONDAY, Oct. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Durvalumab results in significantly longer overall survival than placebo among patients with stage III, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer who did not have disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy, according to a study published Sept. 25 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Trump Administration Announces Plan to Cut Drug Prices

FRIDAY, Oct. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In an effort to cut high drug costs, the prices paid by Medicare for certain prescription drugs would be based on those in other advanced industrial nations, according to a proposal announced Oct. 25 by the Trump administration.

HHS Study
New York Times Article

Millions of ER Visits for Asthma Due to Air Pollution

FRIDAY, Oct. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Air pollution accounts for millions of emergency room visits for asthma each year, according to a study published Oct. 24 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Neither Haloperidol, Ziprasidone Shortens Delirium in ICU

THURSDAY, Oct. 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium in the intensive care unit, neither haloperidol nor ziprasidone alters the duration of delirium compared with placebo, according to a study published online Oct. 22 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Oxygen Saturation Should Not Top 96 Percent in Acutely Ill

THURSDAY, Oct. 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For acutely ill patients, an oxygen saturation of no more than 96 percent should be maintained, according to a clinical practice guideline published online Oct. 24 in the BMJ.

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Pace of Change Has Accelerated in Alternative Payment Models

THURSDAY, Oct. 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The impact of alternative payment models (APMs) on physician practices has been described in a study published by the RAND Corp. and the American Medical Association.

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Open Surgery for Early Lung CA Tied to Long-Term Opioid Use

THURSDAY, Oct. 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Surgical invasiveness might play a role in the odds of becoming a long-term opioid user after early-stage lung cancer surgery, according to a research letter published online Sept. 24 in JAMA Oncology.

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Nearly Half of Children Seen in ED for Bronchiolitis Get Radiography

THURSDAY, Oct. 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Despite guideline recommendations to the contrary, nearly half of children seen in the emergency department for bronchiolitis receive radiography, according to a research letter published online Oct. 16 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Most Supplements Contain Prohibited Stimulants

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Many supplements contain one or more stimulants that have been the subject of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-issued public notices, according to a research letter published online Oct. 22 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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High-Dose Flu Vaccine May Cut Hospitalization in Dialysis Patients

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Receipt of the high-dose influenza vaccine in 2016 to 2017 was associated with lower rates of hospitalization among dialysis patients, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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White House Unveils New Insurance Option for Small Firms

TUESDAY, Oct. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A plan to allow small businesses to use tax-free accounts to provide health coverage for employees was announced today by the Trump administration.

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Thermal Ablation Acceptable for Early Lung Cancer

TUESDAY, Oct. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Thermal ablation (TA) is a safe, effective treatment for stage 1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to a study recently published in Radiology.

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Diagnostic Strategy Can Rule Out PE in Pregnant Women

MONDAY, Oct. 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A diagnostic strategy based on pretest clinical probability assessment, high-sensitivity D-dimer testing, bilateral lower-limb compression ultrasonography (CUS), and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can safely rule out pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnant women, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Short Respiratory Event Duration Ups Mortality Risk in OSA

MONDAY, Oct. 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, those with short respiratory event duration have an increased risk for mortality, according to a study published online Oct. 19 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Adolescent, Young Adult Pod-Based E-Cigarette Use Up

MONDAY, Oct. 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Adolescents and young adults are increasingly using electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products such as pod-based systems but have misperceptions and lack of knowledge about these products, according to a study published online Oct. 19 in JAMA Network Open.

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Asthma May Raise Obesity Risk Later in Childhood

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity later in childhood, according to a study published in the Sept. 1 issue of the European Respiratory Journal.

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Bioinformatics Tool Can ID Source of Bloodstream Pathogens

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A streamlined bioinformatics tool can match bloodstream pathogens to a candidate source, according to a study published online Oct. 15 in Nature Medicine.

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Triple Combo Regimens May Address Cause of Cystic Fibrosis

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Triple therapy with VX-659 or VX-445 combined with tezacaftor-ivacaftor shows promise for the treatment of adult patients with cystic fibrosis who have mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), according to two studies published online Oct. 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine. The studies were published to coincide with a presentation at the annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference, held from Oct. 18 to 20 in Denver.

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Sharp Drop in U.S. Life Expectancy Rankings by 2040

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The United States will have the largest drop in life expectancy rankings of all high-income countries by 2040, a new study says.

CNN Article
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Procurement Requirements Drive Interoperability in Health Care IT

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Interoperability of health care information technology (IT) must be improved to facilitate creation of a fully integrated health care system that can improve health and health care at lower cost, according to a report published by the National Academy of Medicine.

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Plasma-Based Genotyping Aids Targeted Tx of Metastatic NSCLC

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Integration of plasma next-generation sequencing (NGS) into the routine management of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) results in an increase in the detection of therapeutically targetable mutations, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in JAMA Oncology.

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Long-Term Benzodiazepines Do Not Up Mortality in COPD, PTSD

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), long-term benzodiazepine use is not associated with mortality, but there is an association for short-term benzodiazepine use, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Lung Cancer Deaths 28% Lower in California Than Rest of U.S.

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Annual lung cancer mortality was 28 percent lower in California than in the rest of the United States in 2013, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Cancer Prevention Research.

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Without Medicaid Expansion, Poor Patients Forgo Medical Care

MONDAY, Oct. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Doing without medical care is much more common among low-income residents of states that have not expanded Medicaid than among low-income people in other states, according to a Government Accountability Office report.

AP News Article

In NSCLC, Longer Survival With Brigatinib Than Crizotinib

MONDAY, Oct. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Among patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have not previously received an ALK inhibitor, progression-free survival is significantly longer in those who receive treatment with brigatinib versus crizotinib, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Active Pharmaceuticals ID’d in >700 Dietary Supplements

MONDAY, Oct. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Dietary supplements often include active pharmaceuticals, even after warnings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in JAMA Network Open.

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Poor Outcomes for Hispanic Infants With Congenital Heart Dz

THURSDAY, Oct. 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For live-born infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and d-transposition of the great arteries (TGA), Hispanic ethnicity is associated with poor outcome, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Aetna-CVS Merger Approved

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A $69 billion merger between health insurer Aetna and pharmacy manager CVS Health has been approved, according to the U.S. Justice Department.

The New York Times Article

Hand Hygiene Program Beneficial for Day Care Centers

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — An educational and hand hygiene program involving hand sanitizer can reduce the risk for respiratory infections (RI) for children attending day care centers (DCCs), according to a study published online Oct. 8 in Pediatrics.

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Albuminuria Linked to Incident Lung Function Decline

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Albuminuria is associated with incident lung function decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a study published online Sept. 28 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Mechanical Ventilation May Alter Diaphragm Muscle Fibers

TUESDAY, Oct. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In critically ill patients, mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) results in reduced diaphragm fiber length that may make it more difficult to wean patients from mechanical ventilation, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Integrated Classifier Identifies Benign Lung Nodules

TUESDAY, Oct. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — An integrated plasma proteomics classifier, which integrates the relative abundance of two plasma proteins with a clinical risk prediction model, can distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules in those at low-to-intermediate risk for cancer, according to a study published in the September issue of CHEST.

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Minority Residents Experience Burdens Linked to Race/Ethnicity

TUESDAY, Oct. 9 2018 (HealthDay News) — Minority residents describe burdens associated with race/ethnicity, including microaggressions and bias on a daily basis, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in JAMA Network Open.

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Industry-Funded Trials Often Involve Employees in Studies

FRIDAY, Oct. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Industry employees are often involved in the design, conduct, and reporting of industry-funded trials in high-impact journals, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in The BMJ.

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Digital Cognitive Therapy Eases Daytime Effects of Insomnia

FRIDAY, Oct. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Digital cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT) is effective in improving functional health, psychological well-being, and sleep-related quality of life in people reporting insomnia, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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No Increase in In-Hospital, Post-Discharge Death With HRRP

FRIDAY, Oct. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Announcement and implementation of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) was not associated with increases in in-hospital or post-discharge mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or pneumonia, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in JAMA Network Open.

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One-Third of Older Adults Die After Emergency Intubation

FRIDAY, Oct. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Of older adults who undergo intubation in the emergency department, 33 percent die during the index hospitalization, according to a study published recently in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Sexual Harassment, Assault Tied to Women’s Health Issues

FRIDAY, Oct. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Sexual harassment and sexual assault among midlife women are associated with poorer physical and mental health, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Number of COPD Events Over One Year Predicts Rate of Future Events

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The frequency of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs) in a single year predicts the long-term rate of AECOPDs, according to a study recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Three-Quarters of Health Care Workers Got Flu Shot Last Year

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Just over three-quarters of health care personnel received a flu vaccine last season, according to research published in the Sept. 28 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Price Hikes Noted in Small Subset of Generic Drugs

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A small but growing subset of generic drugs experienced sudden large price increases from 2007 to 2013, according to a study published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

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Tips Provided for Budgeting in Medical Residency

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Medical residents should start budgeting and save for the future, according to an article published in the American Medical Association AMA Wire.

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Childhood Risk Profiles Affect Middle-Age Lung Function

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Profiles of childhood respiratory risk factors predict middle-age lung function levels and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, according to a study published in the September issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Cancer Risk Varies for Hispanics, Including in Puerto Rico

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Hispanics have lower incidence and mortality than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, although there is considerable variability in cancer risk within the U.S. Hispanic population, according to a report published online Oct. 4 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

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FDA Seizes Documents From E-Cigarette Maker JUUL

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Thousands of pages of documents were seized from the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) maker JUUL by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration during a surprise inspection last week as part of the agency’s investigation into the company’s marketing practices.

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Residual Vein Obstruction Down With Compression After DVT

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The likelihood of residual vein obstruction (RVO) is reduced with immediate compression after diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis, according to a study published online Sept. 24 in Blood.

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Red Tide May Be Cause of Florida Beachgoers’ Breathing Problems

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Red tide may be the reason why some beachgoers on Florida’s Atlantic coast have suffered breathing problems, according to Palm Beach County officials.

CBS/AP News Article

JUUL Laboratories Have Largest Market Share of E-Cigarettes

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) — From 2016 to 2017, sales of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) by JUUL Laboratories increased 641 percent, with their sales comprising 29 percent of total e-cigarette sales by December 2017, according to a research letter published in the Oct. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Medicare Patient Readmit Rates Higher in Proprietary Hospitals

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Among Medicare patients with six major diseases, readmission rates are higher for those receiving care in proprietary hospitals compared with government or nonprofit hospitals, according to a study published online Sept. 18 in PLOS ONE.

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Uninsured Rate at 8.8 Percent in First Quarter of 2018

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In the first quarter of 2018, the uninsured rate was 8.8 percent, not significantly different from a year earlier, according to a report released Aug. 29 by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Preventable Cardiovascular Events Are Big Economic Burden

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Preventable cardiovascular events place a considerable health and economic burden on the United States, according to research published in the Sept. 7 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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For Employer-Based Plans, Spending Across Services Steady

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Despite large health policy changes, the distribution of spending across service areas has remained fairly consistent over the past 10 years for those enrolled in employer-sponsored insurance, according to a study published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

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Interviews Can Help Ensure Physician Candidates Fit Culture

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In preparing to interview to hire a new physician, practices must understand their own cultures, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Number of Health-Related Data Breaches Increasing

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The number of health data breaches has steadily increased since 2010, according to a research letter published in the Sept. 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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FDA Approves New Drug for Antibiotic-Resistant Lung Disease

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Arikayce (amikacin liposome inhalation suspension) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria among patients who do not respond to conventional therapies, the FDA said in a news release.

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Anti-Reflux Surgery Promising in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is safe and well-tolerated in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and abnormal acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER), according to a phase 2 study published in the Sept. 1 issue of The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

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Readmission, Death Risk Higher in COPD With Comorbidities

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have comorbidities are more likely to experience readmission or mortality and less likely to receive beneficial treatments, according to a study published in the September issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Recurrence High

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The risk of recurrence after incident venous thromboembolism is high, particularly among patients with cancer-related venous thromboembolism, according to a study published in the September issue of The American Journal of Medicine.

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More Non-Elderly Americans Uninsured in 2017 Versus 2016

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — From 2016 to 2017, there was an increase in the number of uninsured non-elderly Americans, according to a report published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

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