BMC ophthalmology 2016 08 0316(1) 134 doi 10.1186/s12886-016-0310-5
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) usually develop some form of ocular complication in the different segments of the eye due to immune deficiency. In Ghana, data regarding ocular complications among HIV/AIDS patients is scarce. This study investigated the occurrence of ocular complications in HIV infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.
Blood samples were taken from 100 confirmed HIV infected patients. The CD4 + T cell count and WHO clinical staging were determined. The patients were taken through thorough ophthalmic assessments to determine any ocular complications.
Forty-eight patients (48 %) had at least one HIV-related ocular complication. These complications occurred more frequently among those with CD4 counts below 200 cells/μL. Of the participants with HIV-related ocular complications, 11 (23 %) had retinal microvasculopathy, 10 (21 %) showed allergic conjunctivitis, 7 (15 %) had HIV retinopathy and 7 (15 %) had conjunctival carcinoma. All the participants in the study were on first-line antiretroviral therapy; 68 % were females and 72 % were in the Stage 3 of the WHO Clinical Staging of HIV infection.
The prevalence of ocular complications in HIV positive persons under treatment in Ghana is high. Lower CD4 + T cell counts coupled with age were predisposing factors to HIV-related ocular complications.