The central nervous system (CNS) and the eye are involved in Human immunodeficiency virus related disease. Although, optic nerve is considered an extension of the CNS, it has not been systematically evaluated to determine if infections of brain can extend into the eye or vice versa. The brain and posterior compartment of eyeball retrieved at autopsy of patients succumbing to NeuroAIDS, were evaluated with Hematoxylin & Eosin, special stains and immunohistochemistry for infective pathogens. Multiplex PCR was performed in vitreous, CSF and serum for simultaneous detection of bacterial, viral, and protozoal opportunistic infections. Ocular involvement in NeuroAIDS was seen in 93.7% (15/16) with opportunistic infection being the most common 62.5% (10/16); with toxoplasma optic neuropathy in 5 (50%), Cryptococcal optic neuritis in 3 (30%), and Cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis in 2 (20%). Concordance between ocular and CNS pathology was seen in 50% of cases. CSF PCR was more sensitive than PCR in vitreous for detecting ocular infections in posterior compartment of eye.
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