To observe the changes of the ocular surface and meibomian glands by non-contact meibography in patients with type 1 diabetic children.
A total of forty-three patients with type 1 diabetic children and 43 age-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, invasive tear film break-up time (TF-BUT), fluorescein staining of the ocular surface and Schirmer II test were performed for all participants. Ocular surface and lid margins were evaluated by slit lamp. Non-contact meibography was performed with the Phoenix-Meibography module in Sirius corneal topographic device.
Both groups consisted of 25 (58.1%) female and 18 (41.9%) male children and the mean age was 14.4 ± 2.5 years. In the T1DM group, the mean disease duration was 6.8 ± 3.1 years. The mean TF-BUT (p = 0.002) and Schirmer II test (p = 0.007) measurements were lower in the diabetic group than those of in controls. Total eyelid score (p = 0.027) and meibomian gland (MG) secretion score (p = 0.007) were significantly high in diabetic children. MG area loss was also significantly high in both lower and upper eyelid (p < 0.001). In morphological analyses of meibomian glands thinning, shortening and presence of ghost areas (p = 0.05, p = 0.027 and p = 0.000, respectively) were more common in the diabetic group. There was no correlation between both lower and upper eyelid meiboscores and disease duration (p = 0.51 and p = 0.61), BMI (p = 0.08 and p = 0.51), serum HbA1c level (p = 0.06 and p = 0.49) and IGF-1 SDS (p = 0.38 and p = 0.68).
The study revealed that the MG loss area increases and morphological alterations of meibomian glands occur in type 1 diabetic children. Disease duration and metabolic control of diabetes do not affect meibography measurements.
The study was organized in accordance with the ethical standards settled by the Ethics Committee of Faculty of Medicine, Afyonkarahisar Health Sciences University.
2011-KAEK-2, 2021/106.
02.05.2021.

© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.