The study was done to describe the results of all ocular surface biopsies performed on patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) under the care of the UK Nationally Commissioned XP Service as well as the treatment of any subsequent ocular surface conditions diagnosed.

Retrospective analysis of medical records. All patients with XP seen by the service from 2010 to 2019 were included and those with ocular surface biopsies were identified. Data was collected on demographics, complementation subgroup (A–G and V), biopsy details, histopathological analysis and subsequent management.

108 patient results seen in our service, 17 underwent at least one ocular surface biopsy. 45 biopsy samples were available from 13 patients of which 65% were performed on patients from complementation subgroup C (XP-C). Biopsies were categorised as either non-mapping (clinically abnormal ocular surface tissue) or mapping (multiple sites including clinically normal tissue). 67 percent of non-mapping biopsies had a mass as their indication and 46% showed ocular surface squamous neoplasia. General non-dysplastic damage was seen in 67% of non-mapping biopsies and melanocytic changes were seen in 25% of non-mapping and 81% of mapping biopsies. 47 percent of biopsy outcomes required no additional treatment but, of those that did, 50% received mitomycin C.

The study concluded that the background of ocular surface melanocytic, degenerative and inflammatory changes, with patients with XP-C showing the most severe effects. We highlight challenges faced in interpreting their histopathology and in planning subsequent treatments.