Ocular immunology and inflammation 2017 10 11() 1-9 doi 10.1080/09273948.2017.1371765
This review aims to provide an update on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of ocular syphilis. While ocular syphilis is not a new phenomenon, recent resurgence in the incidence of overall syphilis, particularly among HIV-positive individuals, has sparked a new interest in an old disease. The challenge of ocular syphilis is manifold: firstly, it manifests in a spectrum of ways that can occur at any stage of the disease, with the most common finding being panuveitis. It may occur as early as 6 weeks after transmission and may be the only presenting feature of systemic syphilis; secondly, the relationship between HIV and syphilis has been established, as primary syphilis facilitates HIV transmission and HIV may modify the natural course of syphilis, increasing the propensity of the disease to progress to neurosyphilis. The authors present the latest updates to the changing landscape of ocular syphilis.