Relapsing nephrotic syndrome (NS) after transplantation can be a challenge to treat. The result of the consequent long-lasting proteinuria is the loss of the graft. Disease recurrence after renal transplantation occurs in around half of cases, and the efficacy of therapeutic strategies is often limited. Recently, ofatumumab, a second-generation and fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been shown to be effective in severe situations.
We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of children with recurrence of NS after renal transplantation treated with ofatumumab in France, after failure of previous treatments.
Six patients were included in this study in five centers with a median duration of follow-up of 10.5 months. Two different ofatumumab regimens were administered. The primary outcome was proteinuria at 6 months after the last dose of ofatumumab. No patient achieved a complete remission, 3/6 had a partial remission, and 3/6 had no response to ofatumumab. Four patients exhibited a minor allergic reaction with the first infusion. One patient died of infection, as a consequence of multiple factors. No malignancies were observed; however, the time of follow-up was not sufficient to see such disease.
Altogether, these results suggest ofatumumab has a poor efficacy in treating recurrence of NS after renal transplantation. However, it could be discussed in multidrug-resistant refractory NS, but infectious complications and overimmunosuppression have to be balanced. There is a need for further studies to confirm these findings and safety and to determine a standardized protocol in this indication.