The main causes of liver injury are associated with inflammation and permanent damage. They can cause chronic liver disease (CLD), which is mainly related to viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. These conditions prevent the liver from working normally and make it begin to fail, which in turn may prompt a liver transplant. CLD and cirrhosis are the eleventh cause of death worldwide. At present, there are no approved pharmacological treatments to prevent, treat or resolve liver fibrosis. The prevalence of pain in the hepatic disease is elevated with ranges between 30% and 40%. Most of the pain drugs require hepatic function; therefore, the suitable control of pain is still a clinical challenge. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM): lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins, are potent endogenous molecules (nM concentrations) that modulate inflammatory body responses by reducing neutrophil infiltration, macrophage activity and pain sensitization. SPM have anti-inflammatory properties, stimulate tissue resolution, repair and regeneration, and exhibit anti-nociceptive actions. Furthermore, SPM were tried on different cellular, animal models and human observational data of liver injury, improving the pathogenesis of inflammation and fibrosis. In the present work, we will describe recent evidence that suggests that SPM can be used as a therapeutic option for CLD. Additionally, we will examine the role of SPM in the control of pain in pathologies associated with liver injury.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.