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Oncological Outcomes of Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis in Rectal Cancer Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy.

Oncological Outcomes of Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis in Rectal Cancer Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy.
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Ishihara S, Kawai K, Tanaka T, Kiyomatsu T, Hata K, Nozawa H, Morikawa T, Watanabe T,


Ishihara S, Kawai K, Tanaka T, Kiyomatsu T, Hata K, Nozawa H, Morikawa T, Watanabe T, (click to view)

Ishihara S, Kawai K, Tanaka T, Kiyomatsu T, Hata K, Nozawa H, Morikawa T, Watanabe T,

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Diseases of the colon and rectum 60(5) 469-476 doi 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000752
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Oncological outcomes of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy remain to be elucidated.

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic effect of chemoradiotherapy on lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis, the risk factors of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis, and oncological outcomes of lateral pelvic lymph node dissection after chemoradiotherapy.

DESIGN
This was a nonrandomized, retrospective study.

SETTINGS
The study was conducted at a tertiary referral university hospital.

PATIENTS
Patients with rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy and radical surgery from 2003 to 2015 (N = 222) were included.

INTERVENTIONS
Radiation (total, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) with concomitant fluorouracil-based chemotherapy was administered. Lateral pelvic lymph nodes with a diameter of ≥8 mm before chemoradiotherapy were selectively dissected.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Frequency and risk factors of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis were examined.

RESULTS
Lateral pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 31 patients (14.0%), and 16 (51.6%) of these patients were pathologically diagnosed as positive for metastasis. Among the patients treated with total mesorectal excision alone (n = 191), 2 (0.9%) had recurrence in the lateral pelvic lymph node area, which was pathologically confirmed after salvage R0 resection. T category downstaging (73.3% vs 12.5%; p < 0.01) and high histological regression of the primary lesion (73.3% vs 18.8%; p < 0.01) were more frequent in patients with pathologically negative lateral pelvic lymph nodes than in those with positive lateral pelvic lymph nodes. Young age, short distance from the anal verge, and enlarged lateral pelvic lymph node before chemoradiotherapy were associated with lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. LIMITATIONS
The study was limited by its retrospective nature and small study population.

CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis after chemoradiotherapy was estimated to be 8.1% (18/222). Young age, short distance from the anal verge, and enlarged lateral pelvic lymph node before chemoradiotherapy were risk factors of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis after chemoradiotherapy.

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