The incidence of hematological malignancies such as multiple myeloma, leukemia, and lymphoma has increased over time. Although bone marrow transplantation, immunotherapy and chemotherapy have led to significant improvements in efficacy, poor prognosis in elderly patients, recurrence and high mortality among hematological malignancies remain major challenges, and innovative therapeutic strategies should be explored. Besides directly lyse tumor cells, oncolytic viruses can activate immune responses or be engineered to express therapeutic factors to increase antitumor efficacy, and have gradually been recognized as an appealing approach for fighting cancers. An increasing number of studies have applied oncolytic viruses in hematological malignancies and made progress. In particular, strategies combining immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy are emerging. Various phase I clinical trials of oncolytic reovirus with lenalidomide or programmed death 1(PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitors in multiple myeloma are ongoing. Moreover, preclinical studies of combinations with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells are underway. Thus, oncolytic virotherapy is expected to be a promising approach to cure hematological malignancies. This review summarizes progress in oncolytic virus research in hematological malignancies. After briefly reviewing the development and oncolytic mechanism of oncolytic viruses, we focus on delivery methods of oncolytic viruses, especially systemic delivery that is suitable for hematological tumors. We then discuss the main types of oncolytic viruses applied for hematological malignancies and related clinical trials. In addition, we present several ways to improve the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic viruses. Finally, we discuss current challenges and provide suggestions for future studies.
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.