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Online Haemodiafiltration Improves Inflammatory State in Dialysis Patients: A Longitudinal Study.

Online Haemodiafiltration Improves Inflammatory State in Dialysis Patients: A Longitudinal Study.
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Rama I, Llaudó I, Fontova P, Cerezo G, Soto C, Javierre C, Hueso M, Montero N, Martínez-Castelao A, Torras J, Grinyó JM, Cruzado JM, Lloberas N,


Rama I, Llaudó I, Fontova P, Cerezo G, Soto C, Javierre C, Hueso M, Montero N, Martínez-Castelao A, Torras J, Grinyó JM, Cruzado JM, Lloberas N, (click to view)

Rama I, Llaudó I, Fontova P, Cerezo G, Soto C, Javierre C, Hueso M, Montero N, Martínez-Castelao A, Torras J, Grinyó JM, Cruzado JM, Lloberas N,

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PloS one 2016 Oct 2611(10) e0164969 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0164969
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation.

METHODS
31 patients were submitted to C-HD and after 4 months switched to the OL-HD technique. Monocytes-derived DCs from HD patients were cultured in the presence of IL-4/GM-CSF. DC-maturation was evaluated by assessing the maturation phenotype by flow cytometry (FACs). DCs-functional capacity to elicit T-cell alloresponse was studied by mixed leucocyte reaction. Cytokine release was assessed by FACs and SNS was evaluated measuring renalase levels by ELISA.

RESULTS
An up-regulation of maturation markers was observed in C-HD DCs which induced two fold more T cells proliferation than OL-HD DCs. Also, C-HD-mDCs presented with over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α) compared with OL-HD-mDC (P<0·05). Results were correlated with clinical data. When SNS was evaluated, hypotension events and blood pressure were significantly lower and renalase levels were significantly higher after conversion to OL-HD. Diabetes mellitus type 2 patients also found beneficial reduction of mDC when converted to OL-HD compared to non-diabetics. CONCLUSIONS
OL-HD could interfere with immuno-inflammatory state in HD patients with an improvement of renalase levels as potential key mediators in the mechanistic pathway of down-regulation of DC maturation.

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