Current infectious disease reports 2017 08 2219(10) 36 doi 10.1007/s11908-017-0592-7
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
The goal of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection including Cryptococcus spp., Histoplasma spp., Coccidioides spp., and Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei.
In many settings, despite increasing roll out of antiretroviral therapy (ART), opportunistic invasive mycoses produce a substantial burden of disease. The prevalence of specific fungal pathogens depends on their endemicity. Viral suppression achieved by greater access to ART and increased the availability of point-of-care testing with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) aid to curtail the associated fungi morbidity. RDTs allow earlier screening to preemptively initiate treatment of opportunistic fungal pathogens. Identifying asymptomatic cryptococcal infection before starting ART is crucial in reducing the risk of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). There is an urgent need to decrease the burden of opportunistic invasive fungal infections in individuals with HIV/AIDS through different interventions: (a) continue to expand the deployment of ART to the most affected populations to achieve viral suppression; (b) ensure early diagnosis of fungal pathogen with point-of-care testing;