Manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder (BD) show opposite symptoms in psychomotor, thought, and affective dimensions. Neuronally, these may depend on distinct patterns of alterations in the functional architecture of brain intrinsic activity. Therefore, the study aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of resting-state activity in mania and depression, by investigating the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and degree of centrality (DC), in different frequency bands.
Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), voxel-wise ReHo and DC were calculated-in the standard frequency band (SFB: 0.01-0.10 Hz), as well as in Slow5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) and Slow4 (0.027-0.073 Hz)-and compared between manic (n = 36), depressed (n = 43), euthymic (n = 29) patients, and healthy controls (n = 112). Finally, clinical correlations were investigated.
Mania was mainly characterized by decreased ReHo and DC in Slow4 in the medial prefrontal cortex (as part of the default-mode network [DMN]), which in turn correlated with manic symptomatology. Conversely, depression was mainly characterized by decreased ReHo in SFB in the primary sensory-motor cortex (as part of the sensorimotor network [SMN]), which in turn correlated with depressive symptomatology.
Our data show a functional reconfiguration of the spatiotemporal structure of intrinsic brain activity to occur in BD. Mania might be characterized by a predominance of sensorimotor over associative networks, possibly driven by a deficit of the DMN (reflecting in internal thought deficit). Conversely, depression might be characterized by a predominance of associative over sensorimotor networks, possibly driven by a deficit of the SMN (reflecting in psychomotor inhibition).

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