In this paper, we consider a four dimensional model of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) with delay, which is an extension of some three dimensional models. We approach the treatment problem by adding two controllers to the system for inhibiting viral production. The optimal controller [Formula: see text] is considered for vaccine and [Formula: see text] for the drug. The Pontryagin maximum principle with delay is used to characterize these optimal controls. At the end, numerical results are presented to illustrate the optimal solutions. The validity of the model was confirmed by proper semi-quantitative simulation of some clinical data. The model was used to predict the possible beneficial effects of vaccine and anti-retroviral drug administration in HIV-1 disease.
Optimal control therapy and vaccination for special HIV-1 model with delay.