The aim of this analysis was to determine whether optimal outcomes have increased in recent years. Hepatic surgery is high risk, but regionalization and minimally invasive approaches have evolved. Best practices also have been defined with the goal of improving outcomes.
The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried. Analyses were performed separately for partial (≤2 segments), major (≥3 segments), and all hepatectomies. Optimal hepatic surgery was defined as the absence of mortality, serious morbidity, need for a postoperative invasive procedure or reoperation, prolonged length of stay (<75th percentile) or readmission. Tests of trend, χ, and multivariable analyses were performed.
From 2014 to 2018, 17,082 hepatectomies, including 11,862 partial hepatectomies and 5,220 major hepatectomies, were analyzed. Minimally invasive approaches increased from 25.6% in 2014 to 29.6% in 2018 (P < .01) and were performed more frequently for partial hepatectomies (34.2%) than major hepatectomies (14.4%) (P < .01). Operative time decreased from 220 minutes in 2014 to 208 minutes in 2018 (P < .05) and was lower in partial hepatectomies (189 vs 258 minutes for major hepatectomies) (P < .01). Mortality (0.7%) and length of stay (4 days) were lower for partial hepatectomies compared with major hepatectomies (1.9%; 6 days), and length of stay decreased for both partial hepatectomies (5 days in 2014 to 4 days in 2018) and major hepatectomies (6 days in 2014 to 6 days in 2018) (all P < .01). Postoperative sepsis (2.9% in 2014 and 2.4% in 2018), bile leaks (6% in 2014 and 4.8% in 2018), and liver failure (3.7% in 2014 and 3.3% in 2018) decreased for all patients (<.05). On multivariable analyses, overall morbidity decreased for major hepatectomies (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99) and all hepatectomies (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, both P < .01), and optimal hepatic surgery increased over time for partial hepatectomies (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.09) and all hepatectomies (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07, both P < .01).
Over a 5-year period in North America, minimally invasive hepatectomies have increased, while operative time, postoperative sepsis, bile leaks, liver failure, and prolonged length of stay have decreased. Optimal hepatic surgery has increased for partial and all hepatectomies and is achieved more often in partial than in major resections.

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