Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology 2017 05 24() doi 10.1002/wnan.1478
Nucleic acid-based therapeutics has the potential for treating numerous diseases by correcting abnormal expression of specific genes. Lack of safe and efficacious delivery strategies poses a major obstacle limiting clinical advancement of nucleic acid therapeutics. Oral route of drug administration has greater delivery challenges, because the administered genes or oligonucleotides have to bypass degrading environment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in addition to overcoming other cellular barriers preventing nucleic acid delivery. For efficient oral nucleic acid delivery, vector should be such that it can protect encapsulated material during transit through the GI tract, facilitate efficient uptake and intracellular trafficking at desired target sites, along with being safe and well tolerated. In this review, we have discussed multicompartmental systems for overcoming extracellular and intracellular barriers to oral delivery of nucleic acids. A nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system-based multicompartmental system was developed and tested for in vivo gene and small interfering RNA delivery for treating colitis in mice. This system has shown efficient transgene expression or gene silencing when delivered orally along with favorable downstream anti-inflammatory effects, when tested in a mouse model of intestinal bowel disease. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.