Numerous safe and efficient drug therapies are currently available to decrease risk of low trauma fractures in patients with osteoporosis including postmenopausal, male, and secondary osteoporosis. In this chapter, we give first an overview of the most important outcomes regarding fracture risk reduction, change in bone mineral density (BMD by DXA) and/or bone markers of the phase III clinical studies of well-established therapies (such as Bisphosphonates, Denosumab or Teriparatide) and also novel therapies (such as Romosozumab or Abaloparatide) and highlight their mechanisms of action at bone tissue/material level. The latter understanding is not only essential for the choice of drug, duration and discontinuation of treatment but also for the interpretation of the clinical outcomes (in particular of eventual changes in BMD) after drug administration. In the second part of this chapter, we focus on the management of different forms of osteoporosis and give a review of the respective current guidelines for treatment. Adverse effects of treatment such as atypical femoral fractures, osteonecrosis of the jaw or influence of fracture healing are considered also in this context.

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