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Outbreak of diarrhoea among participants of a triathlon and a duathlon on 12 July 2015 in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Outbreak of diarrhoea among participants of a triathlon and a duathlon on 12 July 2015 in Utrecht, the Netherlands.
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Parkkali S, Joosten R, Fanoy E, Pijnacker R, VAN Beek J, Brandwagt D, VAN Pelt W,


Parkkali S, Joosten R, Fanoy E, Pijnacker R, VAN Beek J, Brandwagt D, VAN Pelt W, (click to view)

Parkkali S, Joosten R, Fanoy E, Pijnacker R, VAN Beek J, Brandwagt D, VAN Pelt W,

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Epidemiology and infection 2017 05 17145(10) 2176-2184 doi 10.1017/S0950268817001017
Abstract

On 12 July 2015, a triathlon competition with 900 participants took place in Utrecht, the Netherlands. An outbreak investigation was initiated after 56 participants reported health complaints. An online questionnaire was sent to 700 participants. Stool specimens from six participants and four water specimens were collected from the swimming location. A total of 239 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 34%), 73 (31%) of them met the case definition for acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). A total of 67% of the respondents were male and the median age was 38 years. Almost half (42%) of swimmers reported health complaints. Consumption of energy drinks and ingesting ⩾3 mouthfuls of canal water were identified as risk factors for AGI among swimmers only (adjusted relative risks (aRR) 1·6; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·0-2·5 and aRR 2·6; 95% CI 1·5-4·8). The collected water specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup I and rotavirus and stool specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup II. Our findings indicate that the outbreak could have been caused by exposure to norovirus during swimming. Swimmers should get information about the health risks for making an informed choice about participating. For future events, the organisers decided to change the swimming location from a canal to a recreational lake.

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