Adults with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) experience higher adjusted rates of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), cardiovascular out- comes, and death, according to a study pub- lished in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Investigators evaluated kidney, car- diovascular, and mortality outcomes in adults with primary NS. The analysis was based on data from 907 cases of primary NS (655 definite and 252 presumed cases of focal segmental glomer- ulosclerosis [FSGS], membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease), along with 89,593 matched adults without diabetes or known proteinuria (controls). Compared with controls, adults with primary NS had higher adjusted rates of ESKD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 19.63), acute coronary syndrome (aHR, 2.58), heart failure (aHR, 3.01), ischemic stroke (aHR, 1.80), venous thromboembolism (aHR, 2.56), and death (aHR, 1.34). Compared with pre- sumed minimal change disease, excess ESKD risk was significantly higher for FSGS and membranous nephropathy. For cardiovascular outcomes and death, the investigators observed no significant differences in risk based on the etiology of primary NS.