To examine the outcomes of surgical treatment for infants with congenital cataract and microphthalmia (CATM). It was a retrospective case series study. Data of 28 (55 eyes) CATM children who underwent cataract surgery at the Qingdao Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University and were followed up for more than 5 years between January 2010 and December 2014 under the age of 6 months. There were 15 male and 13 female children. The age at the time of surgery was (3.2±1.3) months, and the follow-up time was (8.2±1.7) years. The data included the basic information of the children, the ocular biological parameters before and after surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and the occurrence of complications. Paired -tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare groups, and logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to IOL implantation, secondary glaucoma, and visual axis opacification (VAO). The mean preoperative axial length was (16.6±1.0) mm, and the mean horizontal corneal diameter was (9.5±0.9) mm. The axial growth rate within 2 years after the first stage of surgery was (1.4±0.8) mm/year. None of the children had an IOL implanted before the age of 2. Sixty percent of the eyes (33/55) received IOL implantation within 2 to 4 years after the first stage of surgery, while the remaining 40% (22/55) did not receive IOL implantation at the last follow-up. The axial growth rate was (0.9±0.7) mm/year within two years after the second stage of surgery. Postoperative secondary glaucoma occurred in 7 eyes (12.7%), and VAO occurred in 15 eyes (27.3%). IOL implantation was associated with preoperative axial length (=0.072, <0.001) and age at the first stage of surgery (=7.270, <0.001), but not with preoperative corneal diameter (=0.735). The incidence of VAO was associated with preoperative corneal diameter (=4.124, =0.011), but not with age at the first stage of surgery (=0.489) or preoperative axial length (=0.489). No factors related to the occurrence of secondary glaucoma were found. The best corrected visual acuity at the last follow-up after IOL implantation was (0.37±0.28) logMAR, which was better than that of children without IOL implantation (0.67±0.19) logMAR (=49.50, =0.003). Children with CATM can obtain the opportunity for IOL implantation through early surgery and ultimately achieve good visual outcomes. Properly selecting the timing for implanting IOL can keep the incidence of secondary glaucoma at an acceptable level.