LRRC8A-containing anion channels associate with Nox1 and regulate superoxide production and TNFα signaling. Here we show that LRRC8C and 8D also co-immunoprecipitate with Nox1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. LRRC8C knockdown inhibited TNFα-induced O production, receptor endocytosis, NF-κB activation, and proliferation while LRRC8D knockdown enhanced NF-κB activation. Significant changes in LRRC8 isoform expression in human atherosclerosis and psoriasis suggest compensation for increased inflammation. The oxidant chloramine-T (ChlorT, 1 mM) weakly (∼25%) inhibited LRRC8C currents but potently (∼80%) inhibited LRRC8D currents. Substitution of the extracellular loop (EL1, EL2) domains of 8D onto 8C conferred significantly stronger (69%) ChlorT-dependent inhibition. ChlorT exposure impaired subsequent current block by DCPIB, which occurs through interaction with EL1, further implicating external oxidation sites. LRRC8A/C channels most effectively sustain Nox1 activity at the plasma membrane. This may result from their ability to remain active in an oxidized microenvironment.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) activates NADPH Oxidase 1 (Nox1) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), producing superoxide (O ) required for subsequent signaling. LRRC8 family proteins A-E comprise volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). The required subunit LRRC8A physically associates with Nox1, and VRAC activity is required for Nox activity and the inflammatory response to TNFα. VRAC currents are modulated by oxidants, suggesting that channel oxidant sensitivity and proximity to Nox1 may play a physiologically relevant role. In VSMCs, LRRC8C knockdown (siRNA) recapitulated the effects of siLRRC8A, inhibiting TNFα-induced extracellular and endosomal O production, receptor endocytosis, NF-κB activation, and proliferation. In contrast, siLRRC8D potentiated NF-κB activation. Nox1 co-immunoprecipitated with 8C and 8D, and colocalized with 8D at the plasma membrane and in vesicles. We compared VRAC currents mediated by homomeric and heteromeric LRRC8C and LRRC8D channels expressed in HEK293 cells. The oxidant chloramine T (ChlorT, 1 mM) weakly inhibited 8C, but potently inhibited 8D currents. ChlorT exposure also impaired subsequent current block by the VRAC blocker DCPIB, implicating external sites of oxidation. Substitution of the 8D extracellular loop domains (EL1, EL2) onto 8C conferred significantly stronger ChlorT-mediated inhibition of 8C currents. Our results suggest that LRRC8A/C channel activity can be effectively maintained in the oxidized microenvironment expected to result from Nox1 activation at the plasma membrane. Increased ratios of 8D:8C expression may potentially depress inflammatory responses to TNFα. LRRC8A/C channel downregulation represents a novel strategy to reduce TNFα-induced inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.