To investigate oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in bipolar disorder (BD).
Electronic MEDLINE/PubMed/Cochrane-Library/Scopus/TripDatabase search until 06/30/2019 for studies comparing antioxidant or oxidative stress markers between BD and healthy controls (HCs). Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for ≥3 studies.
Forty-four studies (n=3,767: BD=1,979; HCs=1,788) reported on oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total nitrites; antioxidants glutathione (GSH), uric acid and zinc; or antioxidantenhancing enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and GSH-transferase (GST). Compared with HCs, BD was associated with higher GST (P=0.01), CAT (P=0.02), nitrites (P<0.0001), TBARS (P<0.0001), MDA (P=0.01), uric acid (P<0.0001), and lower GSH (P=0.006), without differences in SOD, GPX and zinc. Compared to HCs, levels were higher in BD-mania for TBARS (P<0.0001) and uric acid (P<0.0001); in BD-depression for TBARS (P=0.02); and BD-euthymia for uric acid (P=0.03). Uric acid levels were higher in BD-mania vs.BD-depression (P=0.002), but not vs. BD euthymia. TBARS did not differ between BD-mania and BD-depression. Medication-free BD-mania patients had higher SOD (P=0.02) and lower GPX (P<0.0001) than HCs. After treatment, BD did not differ from HCs regarding SOD and GPX CONCLUSIONS: Beyond a single biomarker of oxidative stress, the combination of several parameters appears to be more informative for BD in general and taking into account illness polarity. BD is associated with an imbalance in oxidative stress with some phase-specificity for uric acid and TBARS and possible treatment benefits for SOD and GPX. Future studies should take into account confounding factors that can modify oxidative stress status and simultaneously measure oxidative stress markers and antioxidants including different blood sources.
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