This study aimed to compare the P3 component between patients who have migraines with aura and healthy subjects, and to compare different subtypes of migraine with aura relative to the complexity of migraine aura.
Average Migraine Aura Complexity Score was calculated for each MwA patient. Visual oddball paradigm was used to elicit the P3 component. P3 amplitudes and latencies elicited from frequent and rare stimuli, as well as from difference wave, were compared with healthy subjects. Subsequently, subtypes of migraine with aura were compared and Average Migraine Aura Complexity Score was used to explore the connection between features of the P3 and complexity of migraine with aura.
37 patients who have migraine with aura (16 with simple aura and 21 with complex aura) patients and 28 healthy subjects were studied. Patients who have migraine with aura had significantly prolonged latencies compared to healthy subjects (411 ± 39 ms vs 372 ± 34 ms, p < 0.001) relative to a rare condition. Patients who have complex aura significantly differs from patients who have simple aura (427 ± 34 ms vs 389 ± 35 ms, p = 0.004) and healthy subjects (372 ± 34 ms, p < 0.001) relative to P3 latency in a rare condition and the patients who have complex aura significantly differs from healthy subjects (442 ± 37 ms vs 394 ± 33 ms, p < 0.001) relative to P3 latency in difference wave. P3 latency from rare condition positively correlated with the Average Migraine Aura Complexity Score (p < 0.001).
Visual oddball paradigm, particularly rare stimuli, could serve as a potential new tool for deep profiling of different clinical complexities among patients who have migraine with aura. Also, the present pattern of P3 components provided new evidence for the cognitive dysfunctions in patients who have migraine with aura.