Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 2018 03 29() 1-10 doi 10.1080/1120009X.2018.1451030
HIV-1 epidemiology is changing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategies have been continuously optimized over time. However, the correct management of infected women during pregnancy is crucial for PMTCT and cases of vertical transmission continue to occur.
To review the most recent evidence regarding the prevention of MTCT in resource-rich and resource-limited settings, focalizing on new possible approaches.
New issues regard the optimal antiretroviral therapy regimen for pregnant women with good immunological control, the use of intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnant women with low viral load, the optimization of prophylaxis in the settings where breastfeeding is recommended and use of combined neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) in infants at high-risk for MTCT. Complete viral control, in recent years, has been achieved in most infected pregnant women, has led to change the recommended mode of delivery, since vaginal birth has become a safe option and is now largely recommended. Recent data reported a large use of CNP in preterm infants: this practice may be dangerous, due to the lack of safety data, and its efficacy and effectiveness is unproven.
Data are accumulating on efficacy, effectiveness and safety of different PMTCT strategies in various possible clinical scenarios, however further researches are needed in order to optimize the management of infants at extremely low risk for MTCT as well as in those presenting with high risk for infection.