Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal diseases, with an average 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. Unfortunately, the majority of patients have unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Moreover, traditional treatments such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation have not been shown to significantly improve survival. Recently, there has been a swift increase in cancer treatments that incorporate immunotherapy-based strategies to target all the stepwise events required for tumor initiation and progression. The results in melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma are very encouraging. Unfortunately, the application of checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 antibodies, in pancreatic cancer has been disappointing. Many studies have revealed that the PDAC microenvironment supports tumor growth, promotes metastasis and consists of a physical barrier to drug delivery. Combination therapies hold great promise for enhancing immune responses to achieve a better therapeutic effect. In this review, we provide an outline of why pancreatic cancer is so lethal and of the treatment hurdles that exist. Particular emphasis is given to the role of the tumor microenvironment, and some of the latest and most promising studies on immunotherapy in PDAC are also presented.©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Effectiveness and Safety of Acupuncture for Perimenopausal Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
February 17, 2020
Hyperprogressive disease in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a new pattern of post-treatment cancer behavior.
July 13, 2020
February 10, 2020
- ASCO – Lung CancerASCO.20 Virtual Scientific Program, held May 29 - 31, brought professionals from all over the world together to hear the brightest minds in oncology present state-of-the-art treatment modalities and new therapies.
- AACR-2020The American Association for Cancer Research is the world's oldest and largest professional association related to cancer research.
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ASCO 2019The 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting, taking place May 31-June 4 in Chicago, will bring together more than 32,000 oncology professionals from across the globe. The theme of this year’s conference is Caring for Every Patient, Learning From Every Patient.