Journal of virology 2017 07 26() pii 10.1128/JVI.00991-17
In the search for effective immunologic interventions to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection, standardized reference reagents are a cost-effective way to maintain robustness and reproducibility among immunological assays. To support planned and ongoing studies where clade C predominates, here we describe three virus panels, chosen from 200 well-characterized clade C envelope (Env)-pseudotyped viruses from early infection. All 200 Envs were expressed as single-round of replication pseudoviruses, and tested to quantify neutralization titers by 16 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and sera from 30 subjects with chronic clade C infections. We selected large panels of 50 and 100 Envs to characterize cross-reactive breadth, either for sera identified as having potent neutralization activity based on initial screening, or to evaluate neutralization magnitude-breadth distributions of newly isolated antibodies. We identified these panels by down-selection after hierarchical clustering of bnAb neutralization titers. Resulting panels represent diversity of neutralization profiles throughout the range of virus sensitivities identified in the original panel of 200 viruses. A small 12-Env panel was chosen to screen sera from vaccine trials or natural-infection studies for neutralization responses. We considered panels selected by previously described methods, but favor a computationally informed method that enabled selection of viruses representing diverse neutralization sensitivity patterns, given that we do not a priori know what the neutralization-response profile of vaccine sera will be, relative to sera from infected individuals. The resulting 12-Env panel complements existing panels. Use of standardized panels enables direct comparisons of data from different trials and study sites testing HIV-1 clade C-specific products.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 M group includes nine clades and many recombinants. Clade C is the most common lineage, responsible for roughly half of current HIV-1 infections, and a focus for vaccine design and testing. Standard reference reagents, particularly virus panels to study neutralization by antibodies, are crucial for developing cost-effective yet rigorous and reproducible assays against this diverse and variable virus. We developed clade C-specific panels for use as standardized reagents to monitor complex polyclonal sera for neutralization activity, and to characterize potency and breadth of cross-reactive neutralization by monoclonal antibodies, whether engineered or isolated from infected individuals. We chose from 200 southern African, clade C envelope-pseudotyped viruses with neutralization titers against 16 broadly neutralizing antibodies and 30 sera from chronic clade C infections. We selected panels to represent diversity of bnAb neutralization profiles and Env neutralization sensitivities. Use of standard virus panels can facilitate comparison of results across studies and sites.