Objectives Thyroid cancer is the most common pediatric endocrine neoplasm representing 3% of all malignancies in children. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is also a common disorder in the pediatric age range. Patients with HT frequently develop enlarged thyroid with nodules. We aimed to provide a literature review on the frequency of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients with HT. Content A literature search of the PubMed database between 2000 and 2020 was performed, using the relevant keywords “papillary thyroid carcinoma,” “Hashimoto’s thyroiditis” and “children”. We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines during the preparation of this review. Six studies (n=2,065 patients with HT) were retained for the final analysis. The follow-up of the patients with HT was from 2 to 10 years. PTC was diagnosed in 0.67-7.87% of the HT patients included in these studies. In patients with HT and nodules, the percentage of PTC varied between 5.13 and 35%. The overall occurrence of PTC in patients with HT was 3.07%. Summary and Outlook The number of patients developing thyroid nodules in relation to HT was increased. The development of PTC in children with HT appeared to be higher than in the normal population.

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PubMed