The mesopancreas does not have well-defined boundaries but is continuous and connected through its components with the paraaortic area. The mesopancreatic resection margin has been indicated as the primary site for R1 resection after PD in pancreatic head cancer and total mesopancreas excision has been proposed to achieve adequate retropancreatic margin clearance and to minimize the likelihood of R1 resection. However, the anatomy of the mesopancreas requires extended dissection of the paraaortic area to maximize posterior clearance. The artery-first surgical approach has been developed to increase local radicality at the mesopancreatic resection margin. During PD, the artery-first approach begins with dissection of the connective tissues around the SMA. However, the concept of the mesopancreas as a boundless structure that includes circumferential tissues around the SMA, SMV, and paraaortic tissue highlights the need to shift from artery-first PD to mesopancreas-first PD to reduce the risk of R1 resection. From this perspective the “artery-first” approach, which allows for the avoidance of R2 resection risk, should be integrated into the “mesopancreas-first” approach to improve the R0 resection rate. In total mesopancreas excision and mesopancreas-first pancreaticoduodenectomies, the inclusion of the paraaortic area and circumferential area around the SMA in the resection field is necessary to control the tumour spread along the mesopancreatic resection margin rather than to control or stage the spread in the nodal basin.