The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 2016 11 2896(2) 368-372 doi 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0254
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is endemic to Latin America, where 10 million people may be infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/Paracoccidioides lutzii and 1,600,000 individuals live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An epidemiological overlapping of these infections occurred early in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era with nearly 180 published cases. This study presents epidemiological, clinical, and outcome profiles for 31 PCM patients with HIV infection diagnosed in a teaching hospital in Brazil, and includes an update of previously reported cases. Medical records were reviewed and data compared with 64 PCM patients without HIV infection. Of the 31 PCM patients with HIV infection, 23 (74.1%) were male, with a median age of 36.7 years, whereas of the 64 PCM, 45 (70.3%) were male, with a median age of 35.1 years. Both groups presented similar proportions for smoking and alcoholism. PCM patients with HIV infection presented more fever, weight loss, and the acute clinical form than the PCM patients who had more mucosal and respiratory involvement characterizing the chronic form. Most PCM patients with HIV infection exhibited overlapping symptoms from both clinical forms with median symptom duration of 4.5 months compared with 8.3 months for the PCM control. Patients received sulfonamides and/or itraconazole for a median of 15.7 and 16.7 months for PCM/HIV-infected and PCM, respectively. Relapses occurred more in PCM (12 [30%]) than PCM/HIV-infected (4 [14.8%]) patients, whose mortality rate was higher (10 [32.8%]) than PCM patients (8 [20%]). The cases of PCM/HIV infection confirm that HIV can interact with some endemic diseases without increasing their frequency, while changing their natural history, clinical presentation, and outcome. The data presented here are in agreement with those observed in other studies.