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Paracrine interactions between mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages are regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

Paracrine interactions between mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages are regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
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Saldaña L, Vallés G, Bensiamar F, Mancebo FJ, García-Rey E, Vilaboa N,


Saldaña L, Vallés G, Bensiamar F, Mancebo FJ, García-Rey E, Vilaboa N, (click to view)

Saldaña L, Vallés G, Bensiamar F, Mancebo FJ, García-Rey E, Vilaboa N,

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Scientific reports 2017 11 067(1) 14618 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-15217-8
Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) modulate the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response through the secretion of soluble factors. In addition to its classical effects on calcium homeostasis, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) has emerged as an important regulator of the immune system. The present study investigates whether 1,25D3 modulates the paracrine interactions between MSC and macrophages. 1,25D3 stimulated MSC to produce PGE2 and VEGF and regulated the interplay between macrophages and MSC toward reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Conditioned media (CM) from co-cultures of macrophages and MSC impaired MSC osteogenesis. However, MSC cultured in CM from 1,25D3-treated co-cultures showed increased matrix maturation and mineralization. Co-culturing MSC with macrophages prevented the 1,25D3-induced increase in RANKL levels, which correlated with up-regulation of OPG secretion. MSC seeding in three-dimensional (3D) substrates potentiated their immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. Exposure of 3D co-cultures to 1,25D3 further reduced the levels of soluble factors related to inflammation and chemotaxis. As a consequence of 1,25D3 treatment, the recruitment of monocytes toward CM of 3D co-cultures decreased, while the osteogenic maturation of MSC increased. These data add new insights into the pleiotropic effects of 1,25D3 on the crosstalk between MSC and macrophages and highlight the role of the hormone in bone regeneration.

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